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The claim that it should be possible to repeat the first language acquisition process in second language instruction is an illusion*' (1970, p. From 20 this it follows then that **it is unconvincing to argue that some second language teaching procedures are 'natural' or 'right* on the grounds that they supposedly repeat first language acqui- sition" (Ibid.)* Since the way of presenting grannnar is a particularly important: matter to our study, it must be emphasized that in the direct method "Grammar was not taught explicitly and deductively . 19-20)* This way of grammar teaching is strongly criticized by Lipsky, according to whom "Direct Method lost its head when it became a cult inspired with a sacred horror of the pupil'^s vernacular.
The height of absurdity was reached when difficult grammar rules were given in the unknown tongue, and formal introductory text was followed with, ' Konjugieren Sie im Imperfekt ' or ' Daklinieren Sie in der Mehrzahl '" (19A87"p277) * The superiority of inductive teaching to deductive teaching., so much emphasized by the direct methodists, has been questioned by many theorists and teachers and, since it is one of the major issues of second language teaching, it will be dealt with later in this study* The more extreme direct methodists dogmatically rejected translation as "a vicious and harmful proceeding" (Palmer, 1968, p.61) as well as explanations and every other use of the native tongue.
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Thus, as Hammerly points out, the direct method becomes indirect in the sense that "it does not take advantage of a number of time-saving shortcuts available in the second language learning process, such as, for example, the ability of the learner to understand and verbalize, in the native language, second language grammatical patterns and semantic relationships" (1971, p.500)* Apart from these aspects the direct method has been criticized because it "could be very discouraging and bewildering for the less talented /student^" and because it "made great demand on the energy of the teacher" (Rivers, 1968, p. This aspect of the direct method is also emphasized by a Swedish scholar: "the direct method is such an extremely difficult and demanding method, that it presupposes a teacher training program which, with respect to its length and inten- sity, is in the foreseeable future outside the possibilities of this poor country" (Malmberg, 1971, p. Finally, many critics of the direct method share Harding's opinion that the direct methodists "seem to have missed completely . the principle of selection, grading and controlled presentation of linguistic items, first vocabulary and then structures" (1967, p. 1:9 It is a well-known fact that the popularity of the direct method, having reached its peak around the turn of the century, rapidly decreased.
As Buchanan and Mac Phee say: ''Early adherents of the new method, after their enthusiasm has been dashed by stern realities, have gradually broken away" (in Newmark, 1948, p. Abandoning the pure forms of direct method, the teachers started using eclectic methods, or returned to traditional practices.
Where all the students in the class speak the same first language, many audiolingual programs also rely on analyses which contrast the structures of the target language with those of the first language of the students (1970, p. The theoretical bases underlying the method defined above have been elaborated partly by American structural linguists and partly by behaviorist psychologists.
on the grounds that a child learns its native tongue that way (1970, pp. The audiolingual method, also termed "New Key", "scientific method", ''fundamental skills method",' "aural-oral method", and "American method" has been more or less the official method in the United States for the past three decades and has exerted great influence on language-teaching all over the world.
According to Cooper, this method is distinguished by the following features: First it places great emphasis on speech, not only as a goal of instruction but also as the medium of instruc- tion.
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